The INS2I's work is based on around fifty research units which have close partnerships with universities, grandes écoles and the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (Inria). To respond to the challenges brought up by digital issues - including big data, cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, etc. - the Institute also encourages collaboration projects between its laboratories and socio-economic actors or companies in the digital sector.

Since its creation in 2009, the INS2I has constantly consolidated and developed its research structures by restructuring its joint research units to better adapt them to site policies, creating new research networks to ensure better coverage of the discipline's themes and establishing strong and close links between the Institute's management and those responsible for the steering of these structures. The objective of all this is to build an agile governance and research ecosystem which is capable of rapidly adapting to changes in the environment, responding to emerging scientific challenges and mobilizing support resources. For example, recent years have seen the creation of several research federations which merged their component units and of research networks working on data science, AI, computer security and automatic language processing.